When Does The Paris Agreement Enter Into Force
The agreement stated that it would only enter into force (and therefore fully effective) if 55 countries that produce at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015)  ratify, accept, approve or adhere to the agreement.   On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris climate agreement.  175 contracting parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first day of its signing.   On the same day, more than 20 countries announced plans to join the accession as soon as possible in 2016. The ratification by the European Union has achieved a sufficient number of contracting parties to enter into force on 4 November 2016. The Kyoto Protocol, the international agreement that preceded the Paris agreement, was also “under” the UNFCCC, although its provisions were largely followed by those of the Paris Agreement. For the purposes of determining entry into force, Article 21 of the Paris Agreement provides for the UNFCCC secretariat to publish a list of the most up-to-date emissions data provided by the contracting parties. For many parties, the percentage of programming in this table does not reflect their current programming. This is because developing countries have recently been required to report their national emissions on a regular basis. This will change under the Paris Agreement, as all countries are required to submit a regular national emissions inventory report.
The Paris Agreement was adopted on 12 December 2015 at COP21 in Paris, France, by the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Vienna Convention on Treaty Law provides for the adoption of the formal act, the form and content of an agreement. In adopting the Paris Agreement, each of the contracting parties approved the text of the Paris Agreement. This does not mean that the parties to the UNFCCC will automatically become parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU and its member states are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. In order for the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had to file their ratification instruments. “The Paris Agreement is undoubtedly a turning point in the history of the common human effort, which covers the combined will of governments, cities, regions and businesses and investors to overcome the existential threat of unbridled climate change.
Next week, Moroccan governments will meet under the aegis of the United Nations to discuss how to implement the Paris Agreement and achieve its goals.