The Agreement Between States To Return Criminals
These restrictions are generally clearly defined in extradition treaties agreed upon by a government. However, they are controversial in the United States, where the death penalty is practised in some U.S. states, as many see it as an attempt by foreign nations to interfere with the U.S. criminal justice system. On the other hand, the pressure exerted by the U.S. government on these countries to change, or sometimes ignore, their laws, is seen by many in these countries as an attempt by the United States to interfere in its sovereign right to manage justice within its own borders. The most famous examples are the extradition dispute with Canada over Charles Ng. The importance of the extradition clause was first considered by the Supreme Court in Kentucky v. Dennison (1861).
The case concerned a man named Willis Lago, wanted in Kentucky to help a slave escape. He had fled to Ohio, where Governor William Dennison Jr. refused to hand him over to Kentucky. In that case, the court ruled that, while a governor`s duty was to bring a refugee back to the state where the crime was committed, a governor could not be compelled by a complaint from Mandamus. International extradition is the formal procedure by which a person found in one country is handed over to another country for trial or punishment. The process is governed by the treaty and executed between the U.S. federal government and the government of a foreign country. It is very different from the intergovernmental transfer, commonly referred to as intergovernmental extradition, which is mandated by the Constitution, Article 4, paragraph 2.
The so-called US programme has conducted several official investigations in Europe into secret arrests and illegal international transfers involving Council of Europe member states. In a June 2006 Council of Europe report, according to Council of Europe estimates, 100 people were abducted by the CIA on EU territory (in collaboration with council of Europe members) and transferred to other countries, often after going through secret prisons (“black sites”) used by the CIA, some of which could be established in Europe. According to the European Parliament`s separate report of February 2007, the CIA carried out 1,245 flights, many of them to destinations where suspects could be tortured in violation of Article 3 of the UN Convention against Torture.  A large majority of the European Union Parliament supported the report`s conclusion that many Member States tolerated the CIA`s illegal actions and criticised such actions. A few days after his inauguration, President Obama signed an executive order against transfer torture and set up a task force to make recommendations on procedures to prevent torture from being transferred.  While the Supreme Court considers the interests of states that are not parties to an intergovernmental pact to be an important inquiry into whether the intergovernmental pact is contrary to the compact clause, these interests have so far not proven to be a useful factor. In the us Steel Corp. v. The Multistate Tax Commission, the Tribunal found that an intergovernmental pact to facilitate the collection and allocation of public taxes is not contrary to the Compact clause.  The Court of Justice has indicated that the effect of a pact on un condensed conditions would not be a problem under the “Compact” clause, unless the pact puts pressure on uncompensated states that have breached the trade clause or privileges and immunities.
 In the northeast of Bancorp. v. The Governing Council, the Court of Justice stressed that congressional approval would be necessary for a pact that would increase the political power of condensation of states “at the expense” of non-compressive states.  An intergovernmental pact is an agreement between two or more states of the United States, which has been approved by the respective legislators of those states and, if necessary, approved by the United States Congress on the basis of the purpose of the Covenant. Pacts that get congressional approval become federal.